The Chinese media’s reporting of the death of coronavirus whistleblower doctor Li Wenliang caused confusion and anger Thursday night, as Li was first pronounced dead, then alive and, finally, dead again.
News Room Desk
Coronavirus disease 2019 / A
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public
Wash your hands frequently
Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand rub if your hands are not visibly dirty.
Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub eliminates the virus if it is on your hands.
Practice respiratory hygiene
When coughing and sneezing, cover mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue – discard tissue immediately into a closed bin and clean your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
Why? Covering your mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing prevent the spread of germs and viruses. If you sneeze or cough into your hands, you may contaminate objects or people that you touch.
Maintain social distancing
Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and other people, particularly those who are coughing, sneezing and have a fever.
Why? When someone who is infected with a respiratory disease, like 2019-nCoV, coughs or sneezes they project small droplets containing the virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the virus.
Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth
Why? Hands touch many surfaces which can be contaminated with the virus. If you touch your eyes, nose or mouth with your contaminated hands, you can transfer the virus from the surface to yourself.
If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical care early
Tell your health care provider if you have traveled in an area in China where 2019-nCoV has been reported, or if you have been in close contact with someone with who has traveled from China and has respiratory symptoms.
Why? Whenever you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing it’s important to seek medical attention promptly as this may be due to a respiratory infection or other serious condition. Respiratory symptoms with fever can have a range of causes, and depending on your personal travel history and circumstances, 2019-nCoV could be one of them.
If you have mild respiratory symptoms and no travel history to or within China
If you have mild respiratory symptoms and no travel history to or within China, carefully practice basic respiratory and hand hygiene and stay home until you are recovered, if possible.
As a general precaution, practice general hygiene measures when visiting live animal markets, wet markets or animal product markets
Ensure regular hand washing with soap and potable water after touching animals and animal products; avoid touching eyes, nose or mouth with hands; and avoid contact with sick animals or spoiled animal products. Strictly avoid any contact with other animals in the market (e.g., stray cats and dogs, rodents, birds, bats). Avoid contact with potentially contaminated animal waste or fluids on the soil or structures of shops and market facilities.
Avoid consumption of raw or undercooked animal products
Handle raw meat, milk or animal organs with care, to avoid cross-contamination with uncooked foods, as per good food safety practices.
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause illnesses such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). A new virus called the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has been identified as the cause of a disease outbreak that began in China. The disease is called COVID-19.
There isn’t much known about this new virus yet. Public health groups, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), are monitoring the situation and posting updates on their websites. These groups have also issued recommendations for preventing and treating the illness.
Signs and symptoms of infection with the new coronavirus may appear two to 14 days after exposure and can include:
Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
The severity of the new coronavirus symptoms can range from very mild to severe, even death. Although understanding of this disease continues to grow, most people with severe illness have been of an older age or had other significant existing medical conditions. This is similar to what is seen in people who have severe infections with other respiratory illnesses, such as influenza.
When to see a doctor
Contact your doctor right away if you have symptoms of infection with the new coronavirus and you’ve possibly been exposed to the virus. Tell your doctor if you’ve recently traveled internationally. Call your doctor ahead to tell him or her about your symptoms and recent travels and possible exposure before you go to your appointment.
It’s unclear exactly how contagious the new coronavirus is or how it spreads. It appears to be spreading from person to person among those in close contact. It may be spread by respiratory droplets released when someone with the virus coughs or sneezes.
It’s not known if a person can catch the virus by touching a surface that an infected person has touched, and then putting his or her hand to the mouth.
Risk factors for infection with the new coronavirus appear to include:
Recent travel from or residence in China
Close contact with someone who has the new coronavirus — such as when a family member or health care worker takes care of an infected person
People who are older or who have other existing medical conditions, such as diabetes and heart disease, may be at higher risk of becoming seriously ill with the new coronavirus. But there is still much unknown about the virus, and the CDC and WHO continue to investigate.
Although there is no vaccine available to prevent infection with the new coronavirus, you can take steps to reduce your risk of infection. WHO and
CDC recommend following the standard precautions for avoiding respiratory viruses:
Wash your hands often with soap and water, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
Cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze.
Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth if your hands aren’t clean.
Avoid close contact with anyone who is sick.
Avoid sharing dishes, glasses, bedding and other household items if you’re sick.
Clean and disinfect surfaces you often touch.
Stay home from work, school and public areas if you’re sick.
WHO also recommends that you:
Contact your doctor if you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, and tell him or her about any recent travels.
Avoid eating raw or undercooked meat or animal organs.
Avoid contact with live animals and surfaces they may have touched if you’re visiting live markets in areas that have recently had new coronavirus cases.
If you’re planning to travel internationally, first check travel advisories. You may also want to talk with your doctor if you have health conditions that make you more susceptible to respiratory infections and complications.
Participants at Manipur’s Lui Ngai Ni music festival sang expressing their solidarity for the Chinese citizens affected in Wuhan, China by CoVID – 19.
The song was performed on Saturday at the annual Lui Ngai Ni festival expresses solidarity with coronavirus affected China.
Songs and dances are an integral part of the annual Lui Ngai Ni festival celebrations in Manipur. But this year along with the usual festivities, something very topical and relevant took centre stage.
On Saturday, Manipur’s popular musician Guru Rewben Mashangva took to the stage and performed a song on coronavirus and urged the people of China and Wuhan city, from where the outbreak spread, to stay strong.
The song written two days earlier by lyricist Ngachonmi Chamroy was hurriedly composed by Mashangva and performed in front of an audience of around 3000 at Ukhrul, the venue of the two-day seed-sowing festival celebrated by the Naga tribes of Manipur.
“A friend of mine, Seth Shatsang, called me up on February 13 and suggested we should use the platform of the festival to convey our concern for the suffering neighbours in China. I wrote the song in just 30 minutes,” said Chamroy.
At least 1662 people have now died from the coronavirus outbreak that first emerged in Hubei’s capital, Wuhan, in December and spiralled into a nationwide epidemic. More than 68,000 people have now been infected, with most deaths occurring in Hubei.
More than 580 cases have been confirmed outside mainland China and four deaths, one each in the Philippines, Hong Kong, France and Japan.
The song ‘China, be strong. Be strong Wuhan’, which mentions fear and despair on the empty streets of Wuhan also has lines in Chinese, Tangkhul and Nagamese languages.
“Video of the song has gone viral through social media and we are getting calls from the US, even China and Tangkhul friends from all over. Some are saying that the festival has been overshadowed by the song,” said Chamroy.
Shatsang, who gave the idea for the song, was also crucial in getting permission from United Naga Council (UNC), the organisers of the festival, to include it as a last-minute entry in the programme list.
“Idea about the song came from the heart. The disease has separated families in Wuhan and people are going through difficult times. As human beings, it is the right time to show our solidarity as it can happen anywhere,” said Shatsang, a former president of All Naga Students Association, Manipur (ANSAM).
While the song was written in a jiffy, Guru Rewben Mashangva also had to hurry with composing the music as there was not much time available to prepare ahead of Saturday’s event.
“I got the lyrics on the morning of February 13. I composed the music the next day and since I had no knowledge of the Chinese words, I took help from my children who used their phones to get the right pronunciation. The music was arranged on the night of February 14,” said Mashangva.
While Mashangva was performing the song, several of those present held placards saying ‘Stay strong Wuhan, we are with you’.
“The response from the audience to the song was very good. Later this month, the Tangkhul Music Association has decided to organise a show particularly highlighting coronavirus at Ukhrul,” said Milan Shimray, general secretary, UNC.
Mashangva and Chamroy are planning to do a proper recording of the song along with a video in the next few days and release it to a wider audience so that the message of solidarity can spread further.
Arunachal Pradesh Deputy Chief
Minister Chowna Mein on Sunday emphasised on the reopening of
the historic Stilwell Road, insisting that it will act as a
catalyst for promoting trade and spiritual tourism between
India and South East Asian countries.
Participating at the Oriah festival of the Wancho
community here, he said the state government will form a
committee for development of the road which connects India
with northern Myanmar and China’s Yunnan province via Pangsau
Pass in eastern Arunachal Pradeh.
“We will appeal to the Centre for prioritising the
restoration work of the road as it will be mutually beneficial
for both India and Myanmar,” he said.
Terming North-East region as the gateway to the ASEAN
countries, the deputy chief minister said reopening of the
Stilwell Road or Ledo Road will reduce travel distance and act
as a “catalyst for cross border trade”.
Mein said that country’s Act East Policy aims at
increasing trade ties, promoting tourism and developing the
economic scenario of the South East Asian region through
He also raised the issue relating to creating of
infrastructure and development of the border areas in the
“There is every possibility for Arunachal Pradesh to
become the fruit bowl of the country and the state has also
the potential to become one of the tourist hotspots. But the
need of the hour is how to utilise these natural resources to
draw more tourists,” he said.
Mein said the state government is providing every
possible support for the protection and promotion of the
indigenous tribal cultures.
He said that the government had provided some funds to
the research department last year to make documentation of
traditional healing system of Idu-Mishmi. PTI UPL
- New cave fish dwarfs all other known kinds
- Puts paid to assumptions about body size
- Not yet clear if it’s a new species
Proving a long-held notion “spectacularly wrong” is a scientist’s wet dream. To do it shining a torchlight in a dingy Indian cave, as whiskered fish acquaint themselves with the sole of your boot, is something else entirely.
Yet that is what experts from the UK, Switzerland and India say they did by discovering a new kind of cave fish, similar in anatomy to an endangered mahseer species, in Meghalaya last February. It is “by far the largest known subterreanean fish in the world”, they write in a recent paper.
The biggest specimen they found was longer than 40 cm — way too long to fit in your geometry box. That may still seem small, but the scientists explain that it dwarfs the vast majority of cave fish. (Imagine encountering a human close to 30 feet tall.)
The discovery of the Meghalayan fish, they say, puts paid to the long-held assumption that the paucity of food in caves limits body length to 35 cm or less.
“All previous discoveries of cave fish from India have been of small fish, and this is the largest of the cave fish discovered in the country, and probably from anywhere in the world,” said Rajeev Raghavan, an aquatic conservation biologist and one of the paper’s co-authors.
The other Indian on the team is Neelesh Dahanukar from the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research in Pune.
‘VERY INTERESTING FIND’
Widely consumed in India, mahseer live mostly in “fast-flowing streams and rivers and also large reservoirs”, Raghavan told IndiaToday.in. The new species is similar to the golden mahseer, Tor putitora, except for its blander look, lack of eyes and — of course — its unusual underground home in Meghalaya’s Jaintia Hills. It is not clear yet if a new species has been found.ADVERTISEMENT
“A locked cave population of mahseer is a very interesting find that shows how little we know about these groups of fish, though the first mahseer in the world was described in 1822,” said Raghavan, who works at the Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies in Kochi.
But how did it go undetected for so long?
“Caves are one of the least-explored of all habitats,” Rajeev Raghavan said. “We know absolutely nothing about the cave fauna of India — especially in the streams and lakes that are found inside the caves.”
What about conservation? Are there any known threats to the fish’s survival?
Raghavan says no.
“It is difficult terrain to get to, and so I think no short-term threats would impact the populations,” he said.
There’s much left to discover about the Meghalayan cave fish, but one thing’s for sure. We know they don’t mind biscuits.
by Ganesh Radha-Udayakumar
The Aam Aadmi Party won a massive landslide in 2015 Delhi assembly election. One of the key promises of the AAP in the 2015 polls was to transform the government schooling system in the national capital territory. A quick glance at the outcomes suggests the insurgent party has not disappointed on this key promise.
With slogan such as ‘education first’, the AAP-led government appears to have infused fresh bouts of energy into a moribund education system, especially the government run schools in Delhi. The AAP government under the leadership of Arvind Kejriwal and his deputy Manish Sisodia, who holds the education portfolio, has allotted highest funds to education, introduced new teacher training courses for students, and have infused money to improve ailing schooling infrastructure.
Overall outcomes of these efforts are visible. For instance, a Delhi government school Rajkiya Pratibha Vikas Vidyalaya (RPVV) in Dwarka was ranked number one among all government-run day schools in India, while two others have made it to the top ten in 2019. Here is a quick overview of series of reforms and initiatives taken by the AAP government to improve Delhi’s education system in the last five years.
Delhi Education Minister Manish Sisodia and Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal addressing the media | Photo: Manisha Mondal | ThePrint
More funds for education
The AAP government has made education and revamping of government schools a priority as part of its governance framework. From 2015 onwards, the AAP government has allocated a major amount of budget for introducing remarkable education sector amendments. In 2015-16, it allotted Rs 6,208 crore for the school and higher education sector. In the 2016-17 annual budget, the state government further increased education sector spending to Rs 8,642 crore (budgeted). In 2017-18, the Kejriwal government spent as much as Rs 9,888 crore and in 2018-19, it went up to Rs 11,201 crore (revised). In 2019-20, the budgetary allocation was a significant Rs 15,133 crore (budgeted).
The increased budget in education sector has largely been devoted to address core areas such as the strengthening of ailing school infrastructure, revamping teacher-training system and students learning programmes. It may be noted that when the AAP government came to power in 2015, the conditions of most government schools in Delhi were in a sorry state, with more and more parents particularly from economically poorer backgrounds sending their wards to private schools with considerable financial burdens.
This is where the AAP pitched its support to bring a turnaround quickly. Atishi Marlena, a Rhodes scholar who worked as adviser to Manish Sisodia, deputy chief minister of Delhi played a decisive role in transforming school education system in Delhi. The government took many significant decisions in quick succession. For instance, apart from devoting more money, the Directorate of Education constructed 21 new school buildings with modern facilities and 8,000 equivalent new classrooms have been added at the same time.
The government schools were provided required financial assistance to have labs with modern facilities, SMART classrooms and e-modules to make learning attractive. Notably, to make classroom experience stimulating for students, the government introduced happiness curriculum with array of innovative classroom learning tools. Furthermore, the AAP government took the crucial initiative of creating a three–tier library structure in the schools. In addition, all government schools have now functional drinking water and girls and boys toilets, electricity connection and 88.82% schools had computer facilities.
Another significant intervention made by the AAP government was with regard to teachers’ training. Delhi government in 2017 started a one-of-a-kind teacher training exercise across the city. The State Council for Education Research & Training (SCERT) undertook an extensive capacity building exercise for more than 36,000 teachers — 26,000 Trained Graduate Teachers (TGTs) and 10,000 Post Graduate Teachers (PGTs), who were teaching in schools run by the Delhi government. Keeping in mind the latest innovation in classroom learning, the concept of group-based learning has been introduced in teacher training so that the technique percolates to classrooms of Delhi government schools as well.
To further improve the quality of education in Delhi government schools and to enhance teacher’s instructive capabilities, the AAP government initiated a Teacher’s Training Programme. The motive behind the programme was to keep the teachers abreast with the contemporary knowledge of their subject. In 2018, 200 teachers received training by world’s top educators- National Institute of Education (NIE). These 200 teachers, after the completion of the course, were regarded as ‘mentor teachers.’ The trained teachers were assigned around five to six schools, which they visit regularly to observe classroom practices and provide on-site learning support to other teachers.
Among other critical steps to revamp public education, the government also took a series of small but beneficial steps to improve students’ learning outcomes. With surveys indicating a record number of students unable to read and comprehend basic concepts at various classes and age groups, the government launched an ambitious project named ‘Chunauti’ in 2016 with the aim of seeking to check student dropout rates and improve the quality of education with special focus on the weakest students.
The aim was to have all students in upper primary classes be able to read, write and do basic mathematics. It has been reported that Chunauti has brought visible improvement in the pass percentage of class IX. Similarly, class XI results made impressive improvement in pass percentage. While the pass percentage was 71% in 2017-2018, it reached 80% in 2018-19. According to a Praja Foundation report, class 12 results have has also shown consistent improvement since the Aam Aadmi Party came to power in 2015. Overall, the AAP government’s stepped up efforts has brought school education onto the center stage.
While the government has brought visible improvement in many spheres related to state run schools, the battle is only half won. While the AAP government has done well to change the perception of government-run schools by infusing more funds and plucking low hanging fruits, many long-standing problems remain to be addressed. For instance, despite all the efforts, the enrollment rate in Delhi state school has fallen. According to the Praja Foundation report, ‘State of Public (School) Education in Delhi’, published in March 2019, enrolment rate in Delhi government schools has fallen by 8% from 2013-14 to 2017-18. In government schools, the enrolment rate for Class I saw a dip of 4.8% in 2017-18.
Another survey by Praja Foundation shows that 2,59,705 students who got enrolled for class IX in Delhi government schools in 2014-15, 56% did not reach class XII in 2017-18. This shows very poor retention in state-run schools. Data available on the state government site ‘edudel’ indicates that a mammoth 55% of students did not go to the Class X in the academic year 2017-18 from Class IX (academic year 2016-17). This means a large number of students failed in Class IX.
Despite all the efforts, the enrolment rate in Delhi state school has fallen.
Similarly, despite many efforts, Delhi government schools have failed to improve critical Xth board results. Only 68.95% of students were able to pass the X class boards in the academic session 2017-18, whereas the pass percentage for central government-run schools was 97.03% in the same academic year. Praja Foundation report further states that Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) results in state government schools shows that maximum per cent of students in standards VIth, VIIth and VIIIth fall in and below Grade C – 78%, 80%, and 78%, respectively. This is a reflection of poor learning outcomes as reflected in the high percentage of students failing in class IX.
Similarly, another report suggests that Delhi Government schools are operating with only 57% regular teachers while the rest of the responsibility is with guest teachers. A huge gap persists in the sanctioned and filled positions, both among the teaching and non-teaching staff in Delhi government schools. According to information made available to the public through RTI applications, it can be said that out of 1,029 schools only 301 schools across Delhi have science as a subject.
Notwithstanding these limitations, the AAP government in its first full tenure brought a visible transformation in the public education system in the national capital. The education system of Delhi is being adopted by other states as well. The government managed to bring major changes in the education system and was able to overcome the major challenges they faced. However, the major challenges still remain to be addressed. While the government revamped the infrastructure, but failed to recruit permanent teachers. It introduced new programmes, but the enrollment rate witnessed a fall. In short, the AAP’s claim of ‘revolutionising’ school education remains a work in progress.
by Niranjan Sahoo, PhD. He is a Senior Fellow with ORF’s Governance and Politics Initiative. Views are personal.
The government has ordered an inquiry into a study conducted in Nagaland by researchers from the U.S., China and India on bats and humans carrying antibodies to deadly viruses like Ebola, officials confirmed to media.
The inquiry comes as officials worldwide grapple with the spread of novel coronavirus 2019, from Wuhan, China, to 20 countries, that has resulted in over 300 deaths.
The study came under the scanner as two of the 12 researchers belonged to the Wuhan Institute of Virology’s Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, and it was funded by the United States Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). They would have required special permissions as foreign entities.
The study, conducted by scientists of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), the Wuhan Institute of Virology, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in the U.S. and the Duke-National University in Singapore, is now being investigated for how the scientists were allowed to access live samples of bats and bat hunters (humans) without due permissions. The results of the study were published in October last in the PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases journal, originally established by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
“The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) sent a five-member committee to investigate. The inquiry is complete, and a report has been submitted to the Health Ministry,” a senior government official said media. The U.S. Embassy and the Union Health Ministry declined to comment on the inquiry. In a written reply to questions from media, the U.S. Centre for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta said it “did not commission this study and had not received any enquiries [from the Indian government] on it.” An American official, however, suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense might not have coordinated the study through the CDC.
The study, ‘Filovirus-reactive antibodies in humans and bats in Northeast India imply Zoonotic spillover’, published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases states the researchers found “the presence of filovirus (e.g. ebolavirus, marburgvirus and dianlovirus) reactive antibodies in both human (e.g. bat hunters) and bat populations in Northeast India, a region with no historical record of Ebola virus disease.”
Bats often carry ebola, rabies, marburg and the SARS coronavirus. Many high-profile epidemics have been traced to bats, and scientists are discovering new bat-borne viruses all the time. Ebola and Marburg viruses are known to cause severe hemorrhagic fevers, which affect many organs and damage the blood vessels, killing more than 50 percent of the people they infect, according to the World Health Organization.
Due to the massive outbreak of the deadly coronavirus, Changlang district authorities in Arunachal Pradesh on Monday had temporarily shut down the Pangsau Pass Market situated along the Indo-Myanmar border.
As per reports, trading operations have been suspended in the border market till March 21, 2020.
During a district-level meeting in Nampong, the decision to suspend operations in the border haat at Pangsau Pass had been taken in order to prevent the possible spread of the illness whose symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, pneumonia and breathing difficulties.
Moreover, the district authorities have also asked gaon burahs and panchayat interim committee members of Nampong and nearby Tikhak Rima Putok to create awareness about coronavirus among the local people.
They have also been asked to restrict local people from venturing to the border side of Myanmar.
The administration has also asked its counterpart in the neighbouring country to take similar measures.
It may be mentioned that the Pangsau Pass market functions only on the 10th, 20th and 30th of every month.
Traders from both India and Myanmar sell their wares at the border market that comes up at Pangsau Pass which is located on the crest of the Patkai Hills.
Imphal/Aizawl, Feb 4 (PTI) Two samples among six sent for screening for novel coronavirus in Manipur tested positive for swine flu, a senior health official said on Tuesday.
The six samples collected from people entering the state were sent to the National Institute of Virology in Pune for testing for coronavirus, Director of Manipur Health Services K Rajo told reporters.
“We have received three reports so far. Though none of them tested positive for coronavirus, swine flu has been detected in two of them,” he said.
Of the two affected persons, one had recently visited China, while the other came in contact with that person, Rajo said.
Being “mild” cases of swine flu, the affected persons will be monitored through “home isolation” and their family members will be provided medicines, he added.
According to Rajo, five centres have been opened in different border towns of the state and at the Imphal International Airport to screen people for coronavirus.
Meanwhile, neighbouring Mizoram has started screening people entering the state through the India-Myanmar border, officials said.
A screening centre has been set up at Zokhawthar in the border district of Champhai, besides one at Lengpui Airport, they said.
The health department said no coronavirus case has been detected in the state so far and urged people not to believe rumours doing rounds on social media.
It said two medical students who returned from China on January 15 have tested negative for coronavirus. PTI CORR ACD DIV DIV
Swine flu (also known as the H1N1) is a respiratory condition which is highly infectious and can spread very quickly from one person to another. While it was earlier only detected in people with regular exposure to pigs (hence the name), it now primarily spreads from person to person.
Like many other strains of flu, swine flu is extremely contagious and can spread through air droplets produced by sneezing, coughing and even by touching infected areas where droplets have recently landed, including desks, utensils and tabletops. This is why the best means to prevent this deadly flu is to get vaccinated.
Who should get vaccinated?Although the symptoms of swine flu are usually mild, pregnant women, very young children, elderlies and those with a weak immune system are more likely to be seriously ill with swine flu. Hence, even though everyone should make it a point to get swine flu vaccinations, the priority groups which are more at risk of catching this infection should get vaccinated without fail.
Vaccinations for swine flu
Vaccines have been developed to protect against the virus that causes swine flu. According to Dr Sushant Chhabra, HOD Emergency Medicine, Manipal Hospital, one should get the seasonal flu vaccine as it keeps getting updated every year to protect against new strains of viruses. The flu vaccination available in the market has four inactive strains and is known as the quadrivalent flu vaccine.
Kids – 0.25 millilitres
Adults – 0.5 millilitres
The swine flu vaccination is ideally taken once in a year and its immunity period is usually between 6 months to one year.
Side-effects of the vaccine
Some of the most common side-effects of a swine flu vaccine include allergic reaction, fever and redness and pain at the site of injection. Some people may also experience tiredness, headaches and muscle ache after getting the flu shot.
Keep in mind that if you had a severe allergic reaction to the previous dose of vaccine, it is important that you inform your medical care provider about the same.