Expanding the Role of Sewerage Systems for Affluent and Dynamic Lives
The construction of sewerage systems in Tokyo dates back to 1884,
when the Sewer System in Kanda District was constructed, and this
was Japan’s first project for modern sewerage systems.
About 110 years after the Kanda Sewer Works, as of the end of March
1995, the sewered population rate in Tokyo reached essentially 100%
in 23 Ward Areas of which population is about 8.5 million.
Kanda Sewer Sumida River
Tokyo Metropolitan Government, TMG, also carries out the construction
and management of sewerage systems for cities and towns in Tama Area
of which total population is about 3 million, and the sewered population
rate in this area reached 97% in 2004.
With the progress of sewage works, the water quality in Sumida River,
which runs through Tokyo Metropolitan Area, has been greatly improved,
though the water quality in the Sumida River was seriously deteriorated
due to the economic growth in Japan in 1960’s
Fig Water Quality of the Sumidagawa Rivver and Sewerage Construction
Role of Sewerage Systems
The role of sewerage systems has changed and broadened in scope from age
to age with changes in socioeconomic conditions, city structures, and
environment. The fundamental roles at presentare:
1) Improving the living environment by drainage and treatment of
2) Preventing floods through removal of rainwater
3) Preserving the water quality of public bodies
In addition to these fundamental roles, sewerage systems are expected to
perform additional other roles. A rich and comfortable water environment
should be performed through the promotion of sewage works, and TMG conducts
several new sewerage projects such as reuse of treated wastewater, advanced
wastewater treatment, conversion of sludge into resources, utilization
of thermal energy contained in wastewater as a heat source using heat
exchange technology, optical fiber communication cablechannels installed
in the upper part of sewer pipes.
Recently, Ariake Wastewater Treatment Plant, WTP, one of the newest WTP
in TMG, has started its operation, and it has been characterized by advanced
wastewater treatment, pressure wastewater collection system, utilization
of upper space on the roof of covered WTP as playground, ozone-treated
Ariake Treatment Plant
Sewerage Systems perform an important role as a fundamental infrastructure
that supports sound and civilized urban life and activities, and present
TMG’s major policies for Sewerage Systems are as follows.
Tokyo’s sewer, which has been constructed for the past 120 years, has
deteriorated due to aging and external influences. At present, the total
length of the sewers, which have exceeded legal service life, is about
2,000km mainly in the center of Tokyo, and it is about 13% of the total
Under these circumstances, TMG has promoted reconstruction and
renovation of sewerage systems. In conjunction with reconstruction,
improvement of capacity of sewer system and/or WTP, introduction of
advanced wastewater treatment, multi-purpose uses of resources and
facilities like Ariake WTP, etc. have been performed.
Sewerage Systems are very effective for flood control. However, even
in sewered areas, floods have occurred in recent years. The cause of
increased occurrence of the floods in urban area is the reduction of
rainwater permeable area by increase of roads, houses, buildings, etc.
and increase of stormwater runoff due to rapid urbanization. Floods
caused in this situation are called “urban flooding”.
To cope with urban flooding, TMG has carried out several projects with
(1) To augment the capacity of sewers and pumping stations and
construct rainwater storage tanks in areas where the rainwater
runoff exceeds the capacity of existing sewers.
(2) To promote installation of rainwater storage and infiltration
facilities to control the inflow of existing sewers.
3) Improvement of Combined Sewer System
In the combined sewer system, which covers 82% of the total planning area
in Tokyo, both rainwater and wastewater are transported in the same pipe
during wet weather, and part of this is discharged into receiving water
bodies without treatment. This is called Combined Sewer Overflow, CSO and
it causes serious water quality problems.
To cope with CSO problems, TMG is now expanding intercepting
capacity from the present double volume of dry weather to triple
to increase the volume of wastewater guided to the WTP.
Moreover, a CSO storage tank is installed to prevent polluted first flush,
which occurs in the early stage of rainfall. TMG are sldo installing
screens to prevent rubbish, etc. at the rainwater outlets.
At its ripe old age of 30 and with half the globe using it, the World Wide Web is facing growing pains with issues like hate speech, privacy concerns and state-sponsored hacking, its creator said.
Tim Berners-Lee (in pic) joined a celebration Tuesday of the Web and reminisced about where he invented it — at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research — beginning with a proposal published on March 12, 1989.
The 63-year-old Englishman is calling on governments, companies and citizens to work together, and wants the web to become more accessible to those who aren’t online.AFP
Not the web wanted
Speaking at a ‘Web(at)30’ conference, Berners-Lee acknowledged that for those who are online, “the web is not the web we wanted in every respect.”
The web has created opportunity and made our lives easier, but many people feel afraid and unsure if the web is really a force for good, he said, adding that he sees three sources of dysfunction affecting today’s web.
These are deliberate, malicious intent, such as state-sponsored hacking and attacks, criminal behaviour, and online harassment.AFP
Make the WWW a better place
He said that governments, technology companies and web users around the would have to make their contributions to make the web safer in the next 30 years.
“Governments must translate laws and regulations for the digital age. They must ensure markets remain competitive, innovative and open,” Berners-Lee said.
While companies must do more to ensure their pursuit of short-term profit is not at the expense of human rights, democracy or public safety, citizens must hold companies and governments accountable for the commitments they make, he added.AFP
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History of WWW
On this day in 1989, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, then a 33-year-old software engineer, submitted “Information Management: A Proposal” to his boss, which then came to be known as the World Wide Web as we know it today.
“Initially, Berners-Lee envisioned it as ‘a large hypertext database with typed links’, named ‘Mesh’, to help his colleagues at CERN (a large nuclear physics laboratory in Switzerland) share information amongst multiple computers,” the search engine giant said in a blogpost.AFP
Back to 90s
Initially terming the proposal as “vague but exciting”, his boss encouraged Berner-Lee to “develop the humble flowchart into a working model, writing the HTML language, the HTTP application, and WorldWideWeb.app – the first Web browser and page editor”. By 1991, the external Web servers were up and runningAFP
WWW is not internet
Not to be confused with the internet, which is a huge network of computers connected together, the World Wide Web is an online application built upon innovations like HTML language, URL addresses, and hypertext transfer protocol, or HTTP.
The web made technology into something that linked information together and made it accessible to everyone.
Iwas on holiday in Turkey, visiting a Roman amphitheatre at dusk, when I realised I was an introvert. As the sun dimmed and cicadas hummed behind olive trees, my friends and I decided to have our photo taken. “Here,” I said, thrusting my phone at a friend. “Will you ask that person over there to take a picture of us?” He laughed. “You won’t talk to strangers, will you?”
I protested, feebly. But when I thought about it, I knew it was true: I absolutely hate talking to people I don’t know. I would rather stumble around lost for hours than ask for directions. If I see a co-worker in the office kitchen, I turn and wait for them to leave rather than stay and chat. I swerve after-work drinks as a rule, and networking events feel like a complicated sort of torture. The majority of social interactions are routinely painful, and the only ones that are not involve a set of long-standing friends who I keep about me like the petulant child-queen of a medieval court.
To me, there are few things more unendurable than counting down the minutes until you can reasonably leave a party without causing offence. For years, I have dragged myself to social gatherings, large and small, in fervent hope. “This time, it will be different.” And then I would go to the party, and a familiar disquiet would settle upon me like the sweet blood fug of a butcher’s shop, and I would feel so fatigued by it all that I would do what all well-meaning introverts do at social gatherings: get absolutely hammered.
As I drank I became brash, boorish and shouty to compensate for how much I hated group socialising. Lots of introverts become very good at hiding their discomfort, and I was one of them. Few would have known how such interactions ground me down. How would they? I was a high-performing introvert in an extrovert’s garb. I would get back from parties and want to peel my skin off from the sheer relief of the performance being over, shrugging off my extrovert suit and collapsing into bed. The obligation was over – for now.
When I became a journalist in my mid-20s, I found that the introversion got deeper and more entrenched with each passing year. I think this was down to the extremely social nature of the job. Every day, I had to speak to strangers, often asking them extremely personal and probing questions – an odd career choice for an introvert, perhaps, but I am very interested in other people’s lives and I hoped it would help me to overcome my fear. In the process of doing my job, I found that my energy levels for nonessential socialising became depleted and I had nothing left to draw on in my personal life.
But with my friend’s comment that day in Turkey, something changed.
With my newfound acceptance of being an introvert, I started saying no to things
Is there a German word for discovering a part of your personality that is plain for everyone else to see? If there isn’t, there should be. With my newfound acceptance of being an introvert, I started saying no to things. No to parties with free booze, bowling with colleagues after work or university reunions. I didn’t stop socialising entirely: I just limited myself to smaller settings, where I would feel less anxious and as if I had to drink my way through the event to perform. Strangely, my love for crowded nightclubs never lessened. Perhaps because it is so easy to lose yourself on a dance floor in the crush of bodies. You never have to talk to anyone because the music is so loud that they cannot hear you anyway, so you can retreat into yourself and your own private thoughts.
Now, when I start feeling the butcher’s shop fug settle upon me, I make my excuses and leave. And here’s the thing: no one notices whether you leave a party early, because you are never as entertaining as you think you are. My head spins thinking of all the evenings I shunted myself up into top gear like the Millennium Falcon going into hyperdrive, gossiping and laughing and drinking, when really I was having an awful time and wanted to go home. Why didn’t I just leave? No one would have cared.
Introverts are often unfairly maligned, framed either as troubled loners or posturing snobs. But, in my experience, true friends are more accepting of a polite “no” than you may think. (One good friend always invites me to parties, but now sends a follow-up text saying: “I know you won’t come, and that’s OK with me – but I wanted to invite you anyway.”) Now, after a day of nonstop work, I often cancel my plans and spend the evening in the numbing embrace of Blackadder reruns, recharging before the next time I have to face the world. And I don’t feel guilty about it at all.
I am proud to be an introvert. So please don’t ask me to talk to strangers, or come to a party. If you are a true friend, you will understand why.
As the Election Commission of India announced the poll dates of general election for 2019, it also clarified the role of social media in the elections. The ECI has said that the model code of conduct and its pre-certified political advertising rules will apply to the social media as well.
Chief election commissioner Sunil Arora reportedly said that all major social media platforms — Facebook, Twitter, Google, WhatsApp and Share Chat — are committed to accepting only pre-certified political advertisements, sharing expenditure on it with the Election Commission (EC) and adhering to the “silence period” that comes into effect 48 hours before the polls.
“All the provisions of model code of conduct shall also apply to the content being posted on the social media by candidates and political parties,” the EC reportedly said.
It has also reportedly decided to bring the bulk SMSes/Voice messages on phone and election campaigning through social media under the purview of pre-certification of election advertisements, just like electronic and radio advertisements.
For scrutiny, the district and state-level media certification and monitoring committees, which vet all electronic and radio advertisements during the model code period, will now also have a social media expert on board.
It was further announced that candidates will have to submit details of their social media account (if any) at the time of filing of nominations. The expenditure incurred on social media campaigning by them will be included within their limit of election expenditure.
Notably, even payments made to internet companies and websites for carrying advertisements and campaign-related operational expenditure on making creative content, salaries and wages paid to the workers employed to maintain their social media account, will have to be accounted for with the EC.
It is to be noted that the election expenditure ceiling is fixed at INR 70 Lakh for candidates contesting Lok Sabha elections, except in Arunachal Pradesh, Goa and Sikkim where it is INR 54 Lakh.
And to put it in context, Facebook’s data recently showed that BJP has already spent INR 2.37 Cr on Facebook ads as of February. The regional parties are at the second position have exhausted INR 19.8 Lakh while Congress has poured in INR 10.6 Lakh for advertisements.
Facebook had ruled that an advertiser who wants to run an ad in India related to politics will need to first confirm their identity and location along with details about who placed the ad. It also launched its online searchable Ad Library for anyone to access. This library provides information about the person or group placing the ads.
The social media giants were also summoned by 31-member parliamentary panel where they told the social media companies they cannot operate like news mediawithout accountability.
However, the model code of conduct looks like a tough cookie to crack for social media companies which have a wide ranging presence across the country and may have a hard time controlling political misinformation across the country.
Media plays an important role in all democratic elections. On the one hand, it keeps voters informed about the priorities and programs of different political parties and candidates. Unless the voters know which candidate stands where on which issue they will not be able to exercise their electoral rights properly. On the other hand, media can also educate voters by providing them with a comparative analysis of relevant issues. Many have dismissed the above role of media as idealistic and unrealistic, arguing that the regular day-to-day reporting of events is full of ‘fake news’ and fails to meet the requirements of good journalism.
India has over 460 million internet users today, and this figure is sure to rise to 635.8 million by 2021. Cheaper smartphones and a ballooning telecommunications industry have together pushed the country to experience this ‘digital high’.
One aspect where India shares the characteristics of other internet users is its passion for social media. There will be an estimated 358.2 million social network users in India by 2021, from the 216.5 million in 2016. This means that the share of the Indian population that access social networks is expected to jump from around 16.35% to over 25%. Accessing social media is one of the key reasons for people to access the internet. In fact, for many people accessing the internet for the first time, social media was the reason they embraced the internet. It’s addictive! It has been observed that the use of social media produces the same effect as love in the brain by activating the chemical dopamine. The jury is yet to find if social media can truly feed an addiction. Fenil Parikh, a psychologist says, “Being on social media has become a daily habit for many, and for some, a lion’s share of the day’s attention.” Statistics show that 28% of the internet users check their social media channels before getting out of bed in the morning. Teenagers (aged 15-19) who spend at least three hours a day looking at their social channels while the IMAI Report already says that 18% of the social media users can’t go more than a few hours without checking what’s happening. The convenience of sharing photos with friends (and non-friends) through social networking sites and blogs is undeniable. Unfortunately, so are the dangers. Not only can photos be used by strangers, but many photos, especially those taken by devices with GPS technology, contain tags that reveal exactly where the photos were clicked. To cite an example, if you stay in a rental place alone and post a picture of yours, it’s possible for strangers to know where you live. Note of caution The illusion of privacy, safety and security in the digital world should be taken care of. Social media usage will continue to rise in 2017. The legalities concerning social media jurisprudence require more discussions and debate. There is an urgent need to protect women and children on social media from unwarranted exposures and influences and cyber law needs to play a significant role in this
It’s true that the media have played an important role in politics since the First Amendment established freedom of the press as a cornerstone of American democracy. Voters need information to make educated decisions, and it’s journalists’ job to give it to them.
But can the media really alter the outcome of an election?
In addition to widespread voter fraud, which most experts agree would be impossible to accomplish, Trump is alleging the the election has been “rigged” through biased media coverage. Recent shifts in the media landscape have changed how the press interacts with candidates, campaigns and the voting public. And, at a time when trust in the media is at an all-time low, the fourth estate has come under fire from critics on both sides of the aisle for its coverage of the 2016 elections.
To find out what the research says about media’s evolving role in the elections process, we talked to three scholars from the UO School of Journalism and Communication.
1. To cover or not to cover
The first way journalists get involved in elections is by choosing which candidates to cover and how much. Those choices alone can have a huge effect on voter perceptions.
“He was able to get the equivalent of massive advertising buys without having to spend much money,” Lawrence said.
For the media, this disproportionate coverage was driven more by economics than political bias. In a competitive 24/7 news cycle, news organizations publish stories that will drive traffic. And, thanks to his preexisting fame and ability to generate controversy, those stories were often about Trump.
Research reveals that many major media outlets attract partisan audiences, which reflects political biases in their coverage. Again, this phenomenon is motivated by business: Since today’s news consumers can get the basic facts from a quick internet search, many publications have differentiated themselves by shifting from straight news to context and analysis
Unfortunately, the media’s growing political schisms seem to be driving polarization in the populace as well.
“Selective exposure is the tendency many of us have to seek out news sources that don’t fundamentally challenge what we believe about the world,” said Lawrence. “We know there’s a relationship between selective exposure and the growing divide in political attitudes in this country. And that gap is clearly related to the rise of more partisan media sources.”
Aside from ideological bias, according to Lawrence, journalists across outlets also perpetuate biased views by distilling complex campaigns and issues into simplified “scripts.”
One popular election-coverage script is the “horserace” or “game frame” narrative. “We know from decades of research that the mainstream media tend to see elections through the prism of competition,” said Lawrence. “Campaigns get covered a lot like sports events, with an emphasis on who’s winning, who’s losing, who’s up, who’s down, how they are moving ahead or behind in the polls.”
The media also perpetuate character-based scripts. “For example, in 2000, the script for Al Gore was that he was a pompous bore, and the script for George W. Bush was that he wasn’t very smart,” said Lawrence.
On the other hand, social media gives users more direct access to candidates than ever before. “With social media, voters may believe they have an intimate relationship with a candidate they will probably never meet in person,” said Lawrence.
And candidates have unprecedented control over the images they present. “Social media allow candidates a direct means by which to communicate with the voting public, thereby bypassing the news media as a gatekeeper,” Dahmen said.
4. A picture is worth 1,000 words
For most people, visuals carry an even more powerful impact than words on a page.
“Visual communication research has shown that images, especially of political candidates, convey emotions, actions, realism and credibility,” said Dahmen. “These images form a lasting impression in the mind of the voting public.”
The photos news organizations choose to publish and such factors as their size and layout can also influence voter perceptions — and reveal possible bias.
“Look at how different newspapers across the country presented the story of the nomination of Hillary Clinton as the first female candidate from a major party,” said Dahmen. “Some led with a dominant photograph of Hillary that positioned her in a favorable light. Some led with an image of her husband. And other newspapers led with an image of Donald Trump.”
Published images also become part of the permanent record preserved on the internet. “Trump may claim he didn’t mock a reporter with a disability,” Dahmen said, “but we have evidence in the form of a video and photographs showing that he did.”
5. Data journalism: Fact-checking, polls and the self-perpetuating cycle
“Organizations like PolitiFact and Factcheck.org are doing good-quality journalism that isn’t just following the new, shiny story of the day,” Lawrence said. “They’re asking tough questions about what candidates are saying and testing them against the available record. But because of selective exposure, research suggests fact-checks will not necessarily change somebody’s mind.”
While fact-checkers focus attention on the candidates’ stands on the issues, data analysis tools can perpetuate the media’s heavy attention on the horserace.
Much of the data Silver crunches come from polls, one of the most common topics of election coverage. “Polls influence voter perceptions,” Lawrence said. “And we know that how candidates are doing in the polls can then influence the type of coverage they get.”
The media flock to the front-runners. And the more coverage those candidates get, the higher they tend to climb in the polls — a dynamic that can turn into a self-perpetuating cycle.
6. Watchdogs of democracy
As of this writing, the story of the 2016 elections is not yet complete — and neither is the media’s role in it.
“Given the claims Trump has been making about rigged elections, I expect journalists to watch voting very carefully,” said Lawrence. “Of course, that’s a very large task with so many polling places across the country.”
To face that challenge, ProPublica has launched Electionland to cover “access to the ballot and problems that prevent people from exercising their right to vote.” The SOJC is one of 13 J-schools nationwide participating in the project.
“Around 85 students have volunteered to participate in a special newsroom on Election Day,” said Radcliffe, faculty lead for Electionland. “We’ll be monitoring social media to find interesting stories of things happening across the West Coast. If we find issues people are talking about, we’ll try to verify. And if necessary, we’ll escalate them to the newsroom in New York to be explored in more detail.”
At least one thing hasn’t changed: Monitoring the workings of power to deliver the full story to the people is still the most important part of the journalist’s job description.